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Table 3 Risk factors for AD mortality (multivariate Cox regression analyses)

From: Cerebral inflammation is an underlying mechanism of early death in Alzheimer’s disease: a 13-year cause-specific multivariate mortality study

Cause of death Significant variables P value HR (95% CI)
Dementia Cognition <0.001 0.51 (0.43–0.61)
  Frontal atrophy 0.003 1.38 (1.12–1.70)
  Inflammation 0.010 1.32 (1.07–1.64)
  Medial temporal atrophy 0.032 1.23 (1.02–1.49)
Dementia and related causes Cognition <0.001 0.58 (0.50–0.66)
Frontal atrophy <0.001 1.33 (1.13–1.57)
  Age 0.019 1.23 (1.04–1.46)
  Inflammation 0.024 1.22 (1.03–1.45)
  Vascular lesions 0.036 1.17 (1.01–1.36)
  BBB integrity 0.048 1.16 (1.001–1.34)
All-cause mortality Cognition <0.001 0.59 (0.52–0.67)
  Frontal atrophy <0.001 1.31 (1.13–1.52)
  Age 0.001 1.28 (1.10–1.49)
  Inflammation 0.005 1.24 (1.07–1.45)
  1. All variables described in Risk factors of mortality (Methods) were entered into each of the three models. The continuous variables were converted to z scores. Only significant variables are shown in the table. The following variables were not significant in any of the models: CSF Aβ42 and APOE ϵ4/ϵ4 (amyloid pathology), CSF tau and P-tau (tau pathology), cella media index (central atrophy), and sex. BBB integrity, CSF/serum albumin ratio; cognition, MMSE score; CI, confidence interval; frontal atrophy, Evans ratio; HR, hazard ratio; inflammation, sVCAM-1; medial temporal atrophy, temporal horn ratio; vascular lesions, ARWMC (Age-related White Matter Changes scale).