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Table 1 Alzheimer’s disease and human Aβ levels

From: Interpreting Alzheimer’s disease clinical trials in light of the effects on amyloid-β

Disease state Affect on Aβ Type of study Reference
APP gene duplication 50%↑ production inferred Gene copy number in patients [5]
Trisomy 21 50%↑ production inferred mRNA levels in patients [6]
Protective APP allele 25%↓ production Cell culture [8]
Presenilin FAD Aβ42/Aβ40 1%↑ per year earlier age of onset Cell culture [9, 10]
Presenilin FAD Aβ42/Aβ40 24%↑ clearance Patient CSF samples [12]
Sporadic AD Aβ42 30%↓ clearance; Aβ42 26%↓ clearance Patient CSF samples [7]
APP FAD Aβ42↑ and Aβ38↑ production Cell culture [13]
  1. Aβ, amyloid-β; AD, Alzheimer’s disease; APP, amyloid precursor protein; CSF, cerebrospinal fluid; FAD, familial Alzheimer’s disease.