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Table 1 Signs of altered immune response in Alzheimer's disease patients and relevant references

From: Inflammation in Alzheimer's disease: relevance to pathogenesis and therapy

Signs of altered immune response References
Presence of HLA-DR or LFA-1 (leucocyte function-associated antigen) positive reactive microglia around senile plaques [1, 2, 35, 37, 40]
Increased hippocampal gene expression of MHC II in AD compared to high-pathology controls [95]
Elevated brain levels of IL-1β and S-100 [3]
Presence of activated elements of classical complement pathway (C1q, C3d, C4d) within dystrophic neurites, NFTs and/or Aβ plaques [34, 36, 96]
Up-regulated mRNA levels of complement elements C1q and C9 in AD brain [97]
Strong IL-6 immunoreactivity around plaques and large cortical neurons [38]
Low levels of TNFa in brain areas with AD pathology [39]
Increased levels of TNFa in sera of severe stage AD patients [98]
Increased levels of intracellular neuronal IL10, IFNγ and IL12 in AD patients compared to age-matched controls [99]
Correlations between Mini Mental State Examination scores and in vivo imaging marker [11C](R)PK11195-PET of activated microglia in AD patients [42]
  1. Aβ, amyloid beta; AD, Alzheimer's disease; IFN, interferon; NFT, neurofibrillary tangle.