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Table 1 Key proteins involved in various types of DNA repair

From: DNA-dependent protein kinase and DNA repair: relevance to Alzheimer's disease

DNA repair type Key proteins involved
BER Ref-1/Ape, PARP-1, and p53
NER XPB, XPD, p53, and p33 (ING1b)
MMR MSH2, MSH6, MLH1, and PMS2
HR BRCA1, ATM, ATR, WRN, BLM, Tip60, and p53
  1. ATM, Ataxia telangiectasia mutated protein; ATR, Ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein; BER, base excision repair; BLM, Bloom's syndrome gene product; BRCA1, breast cancer 1, early onset gene product; DNA-PK, DNA-dependent protein kinase; HR, homologous recombination; ING1b, inhibitor of growth protein 1 gene product; MLH1, MutL homolog 1, colon cancer, non-polyposis type 2 (Escherichia coli); MMR, mismatch repair; MSH2, MutS homolog, colon cancer, non-polyposis type 1 gene product; MSH6, MutS homolog 6 gene product; NER, nucleotide excision repair; NHEJ, non-homologous end joining; NFT, neurofibrillary tangle; PARP-1, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1; PMS2, post-meiotic segregation increased 2 gene product; Ref-1/Ape, DNA-(apurinic or apyrimidinic site) lyase; Tip60, Tat interactive protein; WRN, Werner syndrome gene product; XPB, Xeroderma pigmentosum B gene product; XPD, Xeroderma pigmentosum factor D.